A major mining country, Brazil has a number of world class deposits of gold, iron ore, copper, nickel, manganese and bauxite spread through its vast and varied geological terranes. From the beginning of the 18th century, during Portuguese Colonial times into the 19th century, Brazil was the World's leading gold producer. A second major gold rush occurred in the 1970s and 1980s when new hard rock mines were established and garimpeiro (informal miners) production from alluvial and regolithic sources was widespread in Brazil. A legacy of this colonial and garimpeiro activity has been the location of numerous auriferous systems, many of which remain untested for their potential for hard rock gold resources.
Given the country's mining culture, its international standards and transparently implemented mining code, stable political and fiscal situation, Brazil is a first rate candidate for investment in mineral exploration to realize its evident potential. Although most of the major multinational mineral companies are operating in Brazil, there are comparatively few junior companies involved in Brazilian exploration.